Orofacial Myology: National and International Perspectives This article provides information about the discipline of orofacial myology. Information about the International Association of Orofacial Myology (IAOM) in the United States will be presented. International perspectives on orofacial myology will be discussed. The field of orofacial myofunctional therapy emerged in the early twentieth century thanks in large part ... Article
Article  |   October 01, 2015
Orofacial Myology: National and International Perspectives
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Barbara Erskine
    Erskine Therapy, Portland, OR
    Erskine Therapy, Vancouver, WA
  • Financial Disclosure: Barbara Erskine is a speech-language pathologist and certified orofacial myofunctional therapist in private practice with offices in Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA.
    Financial Disclosure: Barbara Erskine is a speech-language pathologist and certified orofacial myofunctional therapist in private practice with offices in Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA.×
  • Nonfinancial Disclosure: Barbara Erskine has no nonfinancial interests related to the content of this article.
    Nonfinancial Disclosure: Barbara Erskine has no nonfinancial interests related to the content of this article.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Professional Issues & Training / International & Global / Articles
Article   |   October 01, 2015
Orofacial Myology: National and International Perspectives
SIG 17 Perspectives on Global Issues in Communication Sciences and Related Disorders, October 2015, Vol. 5, 82-96. doi:10.1044/gics5.2.82
History: Received April 28, 2015 , Revised June 15, 2015 , Accepted June 20, 2015
SIG 17 Perspectives on Global Issues in Communication Sciences and Related Disorders, October 2015, Vol. 5, 82-96. doi:10.1044/gics5.2.82
History: Received April 28, 2015; Revised June 15, 2015; Accepted June 20, 2015

This article provides information about the discipline of orofacial myology. Information about the International Association of Orofacial Myology (IAOM) in the United States will be presented. International perspectives on orofacial myology will be discussed.

The field of orofacial myofunctional therapy emerged in the early twentieth century thanks in large part to the pioneering work of two orthodontists Dr. Edward Angle and Dr. Alfred Rogers. Dr. Angle observed that myofunctional disorders including poor tongue and lip incompetence, impacted dental occlusion. Rogers proposed specific therapy exercises to develop tonicity and to improve orofacial muscle function. In the decades that followed, much was written to increase our understanding of orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) and the importance of correct oral resting postures. In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, healthcare professionals worldwide including those from the fields of dentistry, dental hygiene, and speech pathology pursued training in the evaluation of and treatment of OMDs. In the 1970s a lack of research called into question the value of orofacial myofunctional therapy. However, over time, research articles proving treatment efficacy were published. In the 1990s, The American Association of Orthodontists and The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) considered this research together with presentations by orofacial myofunctional therapy advocates, subsequently writing position statements supporting evaluation and treatment.

Since 1972, the IAOM has provided orofacial myofunctional therapists with continuing education opportunities and certification in the field of orofacial myology. The International Journal of Orofacial Myology presents cutting edge research. Orofacial myology continues to flourish across the globe. With different countries and different cultures come different standards and protocols and areas of importance. This article presents international perspectives on orofacial myology. Information was gleaned from surveys completed by orofacial myologists in four continents representing nine countries. Respondents share a passion for the field and a desire to help their patients. The responses illustrate various areas of success as well as challenges that lie ahead in the areas of education, certification, and research. International dialogue is needed to expand the knowledge base of orofacial myologists, to encourage research, and to propel the field of orofacial myology forward.

Acknowledgements
The author is very grateful to the following individuals who unhesitatingly completed her informal questionnaire about myofunctional therapy as it pertains to education, training, research, and certification in their native countries: Australia- Rochelle McPherson; Cyprus- Sofronia A. Stavrinida; Brazil- Irene Marchesan, Rossana Ramiers; Chile- Lexia Palomer Jimenez; Chile- Pia Villanueva; France- Christiane Langel, OM; Ghana- Dr. Gyammi Kwabena Amoah; Italy- Licia C. Paskay; Japan- Osamu Takahashi; Japan- Fumyio Tamura; and Venezuela-Elisa E. Palumbo.
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